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Overview of Heat Pump Efficiency Ratings

Views: 715     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-08-29      Origin: Site

Heat Pump Efficiency ratings

Energy efficiency ratings imply how much energy electronics and appliances like heat pumps use. The better the ratings, the less energy they will use while running or on standby. Keep in mind that some studies have shown that up to 80 % of energy use in buildings is associated with heating and cooling.


Whether you have an energy-efficient heat pump or not can be the difference between ending up with crippling energy bills or surprisingly affordable energy bills.


Suppose you are looking for a quick fix for your heating and cooling needs. In that case, one of the most energy-efficient heat pumps on the market today is the R290 heat pump. You should know that heat pump energy efficiency ratings vary widely depending on the particular energy efficiency standard. Let’s explore various heat pump energy rating standards in use today.


● COP Ratings for Heat Pumps: The COP (coefficient of performance) rating is the ratio of cooling or heating provided by a heat pump at a specific energy input. COP ratings for heat pumps range from 0 to 35, with most systems in the market falling between 2.0. and 5.0.


● SCOP Ratings for Heat Pumps: The SCOP (seasonal coefficient of performance) rating refers to a heat pump's total cooling or heating output divided by its total energy use throughout the year. It takes into account the variations in heating and cooling needs across different seasons throughout the year.


● ACOP Rating: The ACOP (annual coefficient of performance) rating is the ratio of the cooling ability of a heat pump to the effective energy consumption for cooling and standby power.


● EER Rating for Heat Pump: The Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) is the ratio of cooling energy output (in BTU) over electrical energy input (in watts) at a particular operating point. For instance, a 10,000 BTU heat pump utilizing 1000 watts of energy has a 10 EER rating.


● SEER Rating for Heat Pump: The Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) is basically EER measured over the entire year, throughout varying seasons. Most heat pumps have a SEER rating of between 13 and 25, with a few scoring higher than 25.


● AEER Rating: The Annual Energy Efficiency Ratio (AEER) rating is the ratio of a heat pump’s heating capacity over the effective power utilization for heating and standby power.


● IEER Rating: The Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio (IEER) takes the same measurements as EER but under varying circumstances and temperatures. For example, a 75% load, 81.5°F ambient temperature, and 61.7% operating time. To determine the IEER rating of a unit, you must have four distinct EER numbers. It's often utilized for split systems.


● HSPF Ratings for Heat Pumps: The Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) rating is determined by dividing the entire season’s heating output (BTUs/hour) by the overall energy consumption during the period. Most heat pumps today have an HSPF rating of 6.8 to 13.5, with single package units scoring above 8.2 and split systems scoring above 8.5, earning an ENERGY star.  


● ERP Rating: The Energy-Related Products (ERP) rating takes into account the energy efficiency of the heat pump and also the eco-friendliness of its manufacturing process. There are seven tiers to the ERP rating system from A, the top-most tier, followed by B, C, D, E, F, and G. Ground-source heat pumps often have an ERP rating of A++ as they are deemed highly efficient since they produce more energy than they use.


● APF Rating: The Annual Performance Factor (APF) rating is the ratio of the overall heat generated by a unit during the entire year over the consumed electricity during the period under varied test conditions and workloads.


● IPLV Rating: The Integrated Part-Load Value (IPLV) rating is calculated by measuring the performance of the heat pump at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% load capacities at a loop temperature of 44°F. The tests are intended to mimic the real-world use of heat pumps. The lower the IPLV rating, the more efficient the heat pump.


● NPLV Rating: The Non-standard Part-Load Value (NPLV) rating measures the same parameters as IPLV but at an exaggerated loop temperature of 55°F. The exaggerated loop temperatures unlock greater system efficiencies. This is possible because the heat pump coils are properly enlarged to achieve similar BTU and thermostat parameters as a 44°F loop.


Which Energy Rating is More Important for a Heat Pump?


As is clear from the description above, each heat pump efficiency rating standard is unique. However, some standards like SCOP, SEER, HSPF, ERP, IPLV, and NPLV are more comprehensive than the rest. SEER is the most popularly used efficiency standard for heat pumps in cooling mode. On the other hand, HSPF is commonly used for heat pumps in heating mode.

However, you should rely on more than just the two ratings to make your purchase decisions. The heat pump should also score fairly well in the other heating efficiency ratings.


Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of Heat Pump


Heat pump efficiency ratings don’t necessarily imply how well a system will perform for your space. Other factors that impact the performance of a heat pump are:



The size of a heat pump (including its components) will impact its load capacity and energy usage.

A heat pump system must be suitably sized for your home to operate at optimal efficiency. Regular uneven warm and cold spots and occasionally being unable to achieve satisfactory temperatures within your home indicate an inappropriately sized heat pump.



Do you experience very warm, muggy summers and extremely cold winters in your area? Such drastic changes in temperature and humidity across the year can massively impact the cooling and heating demands you put on your heat pump. The system’s maximum peak load capacity will also be affected. If you live in a region that experiences extreme winters, consider purchasing a cold climate air source heat pump.


Technology Components

Technological advancements have made today's heat pumps more operationally efficient and energy-friendly. The design and construction of components such as heat exchanger, motor, and compressor play a critical role in the overall operating performance of a heat pump. It’s best you consult an HVAC technician on which features matter most for your setup.


Compressor Type

The type of compressor fitted in a unit should be a big consideration when assessing your heat pump options. Single-stage compressors work at full capacity every time the heat pump runs. In contrast, single-stage compressors work at a lower capacity, especially as they approach the end of their cooling or heating cycle.

However, modulating compressors work at 40% capacity, allowing it to automatically regulate the amount of heating and cooling it provides throughout the cycles.


Ways to Increase a Heat Pump’s Energy Efficiency

Besides the technical factors that have made heat pumps pretty energy efficient, there are other practical ways to make your system even more energy efficient. These include:


● Proper Air Filter Care: Clean air filters are vital to your heat pump operating optimally. Debris and dust can gather on the air filters over time. Check the air filters monthly and replace or clean them as necessary.


● Outdoor Coils Maintenance: Regularly clean the outdoor coils of your heat pump system to prevent dirt and debris pile-up that can cause it to work harder than necessary. Run regular defrost cycles during winter to eliminate any ice build-up on the outdoor coils to improve air source heat pump efficiency.


● Uphold Air Tightness: Air leaks within the vents of your heat pump system will cause it to work harder to be effective. Ensure your vents are installed with perfect air tightness to prevent leaks. Let an HVAC technician inspect your systems yearly to uphold perfect air tightness.


● Ensure All-Round Insulation: Your building has to be properly insulated to reduce the heating or cooling demand on your heat pump. Moreover, heat pump insulation with custom EPP parts will significantly reduce thermal conductivity, thus minimizing energy waste.


● Consider Take Water Sources: For ground-source heat pumps, the take water sources should be averagely close to the surface. As a result, you will avoid spending extra energy pulling water from deep below.


● Pick The Appropriate Ground Design: Ground arrays for ground-source heat pumps must be properly designed and installed to eliminate inefficiencies. For instance, oversize boreholes can raise source temperatures.


● Think About the Heating Distribution System: A well-thought-out distribution system and installation can massively impact the heat pump heating efficiency. For example, underfloor heating utilizes lower temperatures, increasing the system’s efficiency.

SPRSUN Heat Pumps Refresh European Standard Energy Efficiency to New Heights


SPRSUN is a world-leading heat pump manufacturer that has been operating since 1999. The company is based in Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. It has built its success by manufacturing a variety of heat pumps, including air source heat pumps and DC inverter heat pumps. Additionally, the company's products are exceptional, thanks to its robust quality control processes.


The renowned air source heat pumps company boasts having more than 560 global strategic partners who help it sell its products in over 60 countries worldwide. Its production plant in Yinsha Industrial Park has a factory area of over 30,000 square meters, with 4 production lines and more than 600 employees.


This air to water heat pump manufacturer has incorporated numerous innovative technologies in its products, including ultra-low temperature operation, advanced inverter technology, and intelligent defrosting. These innovations have allowed its products to exceed European energy efficiency standards greatly.

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