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What is a Scroll Compressor?

Views: 151     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-11-24      Origin: Site


Scroll compressors are essential in the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) system because they affect the efficiency and general performance of the systems. It can be classified as a type of positive displacement device that has varied applications in HVAC systems. It comprises two intermeshing scrolls - one fixed and another that is orbiting, leading to a series of compression pockets.

Its movement is in an orbital manner, thus pulling in the gas or refrigerant for compression before discharging it.

Scroll compressors are poised for uniqueness starting from their continuous and efficient compression. It gets better. The compression is through interleaved spiral scrolls. That means it eliminates the need for valves and pistons.

Such is the design that bolsters their reliability and durability. Get this: there are no plenty of moving parts. This limits the chances of wear. Compression is thus smoother in every application.

Parts of Scroll Compressors and Working Principle

Now, you got a clue about AC scroll-type compressors, so how about we break it down into parts and figure out how each works?

1. Scroll Housing: The housing encloses two types of scroll compressor components. That is the fixed and orbiting scrolls. Besides containing the scrolls, it optimizes the compression process by creating a sealed chamber.

2. Fixed scroll:  This is an immovable part fastened to the compressor frame. But it has a spiral shape designed to match the orbiting scroll. The mechanism here entails the fixed scroll interaction with the orbiting scroll to create chambers. These chambers will change in size to allow expansion and then compression, depending on the movement of the orbiting scroll. Such synchrony brings about compression, but continuously and reliably.

3. Orbiting Scroll: The orbiting scroll is linked to the motor and moves around in an orbital direction relative to the stationary scroll. It also has a spiral wrap, but its movement allows a continuous reduction and expansion of chamber volumes. As a result, this movement leads to suction that draws in refrigerant gas from the evaporator.

4. Motor and Drive Mechanism: The motor provides power for driving the orbiting scroll in its circular path. As for the drive mechanism, it's relevant when it pertains to changing the motor's rotary motion into the desired orbiting motion of the scroll. In particular, this mechanism ensures that both scrolls move together to maintain an effective compression process.

5. Suction and Discharge Ports: The scroll compressor’s suction and discharge ports allow refrigerants to enter and leave compression chambers. It is through this port that low-pressure refrigerating gases are sucked into the compressor, whereas high-pressure ones are expelled.

6. Oil System: Scroll compressors require lubrication for lower friction and smooth running. An oil system within the compressor delivers lubrication oil throughout moving parts. These pumps normally store oil at their bottom-most part. That is what is referred to as the sump component.

7. Cooling Mechanism: The scroll compressor may have a cooling mechanism that prevents overheating during continuous operation. Generally, it involves the circulation of refrigerant or oil to dissipate heat generated by the compression process.

How It Works?

The heat pump scroll compressor works by continuously sucking and compressing refrigerant gas. As it moves in a circular path, the orbiting scroll expands and compresses the refrigerant in chambers formed between the fixed and moving scrolls. Consequently, this compression increases the gas's pressure and temperature, promoting its conversion into high energy and temperature.

Then, the hot and highly pressurized refrigerant is discharged from the compressor and passed through a condenser. Therein, it will release its heat to the surrounding environment. Now, as highly pressurized liquid, the refrigerant will continue its movement through the heat pump cycle. The rationale is to get it to transfer heat between indoor and outdoor environments.

What is a Scroll Compressor Used For?

Let's discuss the application of scroll compressors.

HVAC Systems

A major role of scroll AC compressors in HVAC systems is to compress refrigerant gas efficiently. Normally, a dynamic compression mechanism will be created by the fixed and orbiting scrolls. The refrigerant will go in through the suction port into the dynamic setup, where it shall experience an increase in pressure and temperature once it is interlocked between the scrolls. Upon compression, the refrigerant leaves through the outlet port to begin another cycle of HVAC.

Use in Residential HVAC Systems

In residential HVACs, scroll AC compressors, including heat pumps and air conditioners, are widely used. Their petite design and quiet operation mode make them suitable for home settings. Moreover, their efficient cooling and heating abilities that provide maximum homeowner comfort depend on compressor efficiency alone.

Additionally, since they have a long lifespan with minimal maintenance requirements, scroll compressors become more reliable when applied in resident applications.

Application in Commercial HVAC application

The Scroll type of compressor applications in commercial HAVC and refrigeration systems are indispensable, as the compact design for installation in shopping centers, office complexes or industrial facilities is tabled.

The scroll refrigeration compressor is utilized for these purposes since it guarantees high quality and durable performance even after long usage. They can handle varying load demands and still maintain efficiency in highly demanding environments. Simply put, their use in commercial climate control cannot be overstated.

What Does a Scroll Compressor Do in HVAC?

The work of the scroll HVAC compressor in the HVAC refrigeration cycle, to reiterate, is to compress the refrigerant gas by raising its temperature and pressure. This allows the possibility for the energy, pressure and temperature, a phenomenon required by the heat exchanger such that heat gets released when it decompresses the refrigerant gas. The process results in cooling.

It would then flow through the system to the expansion valve, being expanded and cooled some more. This newly cooled gas would then be ready to take on heat from its surroundings in whatever application given, resulting in cooling in HVAC systems.

Pros of HVAC Scroll Compressor

The advantages of the Scroll type compressor offered are described below, which makes them desirable for the HVAC application:

Increased Efficiency: The continuous compression process of the Scroll compressors helps increase heat pump efficiency ratings. The design engages in a stable continuous compression cycle with both a stationary and a moving scroll cooperatively. The compressors of this scroll differ from conventional type compressors. They do not engage in lapping processes of compression or, in some instances, discontinuous cycles. Rather, their uninterrupted operation leads to lower energy consumption, optimizing the efficiency of heat pumps.

Reliability and Durability: The simplicity of the scroll compressors’ design makes them reliable and long-lasting. Fewer movable parts like pistons and valves reduce the possibility of mechanical breakdown. The orbital motion of the scrolls results in a reliable compression mechanism with minimal wear. Such a compact design extends the service life of the compressor, thereby offering robust and dependable answers to HVAC systems.

Quiet Operation: One strength of HVAC Scroll Compressors is that they operate quietly, an important quality in homes. Their silent compression is attributed to the smooth, continuous movement of scrolls and negligible vibrations, unlike other compressor types. This feature makes scroll compressors a preferred option in environments that require low noise levels. It also ensures that residents can have peaceful interiors without any disruption from an intruding HVAC system.

Compact and Light Weight compressors: The compact design of scrolls reduces volume and weight compared to conventional compressors, eliminating large components. This compression process carried out by scrolls has enabled them to be built more efficiently, thus saving space. Scroll compressors were designed with these dimensions so as to enable the compressor to fit into narrow spaces and make it easier to mount. In addition, the lightweight nature of scroll compressors gives them the advantage of being easily mounted or handled during installation and maintenance.

SPRSUN Uses Panasonic Scroll Compressor in Heat Pumps

SPRSUN, a respected heat pump manufacturer, is now concentrating on its equipment's quality to ensure enhanced functionality and energy efficiency. One of the main components used by SPRSUN is the Panasonic HVAC Scroll Compressor. It makes consistent performance and exceptional comfort for individuals possible in case SPRSUN integrates this technology into their products.

SPRSUN is committed to environmental consciousness and energy-saving efforts. Consequently, they have introduced R290 heat pumps in their product line. The refrigerant used in the R290 heat pump has low global warming potential, which means that it has minimal effect on the environment while contributing.


HVAC scroll compressors are integral to any HVAC system since they provide efficient and uninterrupted gas or refrigerant compression. Their benefits, such as better efficiency, reliability, silent operations, and compactness, make them the most preferred options in residential and commercial applications.

As a big player in the China heat pump market, SPRSUN knows the essence of quality parts and has decided to consider Panasonic Scroll Compressors for their heat pump systems. SPRSUN emphasizes sustainability and energy saving and thus uses R290 heat pumps that have less environmental impact but, at the same time, deliver excellent comfort and dependable performance.

In conclusion, scroll compressors are important players in the HVAC industry because of their positive impacts on the functionality and efficiency of HVAC systems. The future of HVAC systems seems bright with SPRSUN’s innovative spirit and use of quality components, among other things.

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